title = “Heavy metal toxicity and mortality-association between density of heavy metal bands and cause specific hospital admissions and mortality: population based cohort study”,
author = “Martikainen, Pekka and Korhonen, Kaarina and Tarkiainen, Lasse”,
abstract = “OBJECTIVE: To assess the association between area level density of heavy metal bands and cause specific hospital admissions and mortality. DESIGN: Longitudinal register based cohort study. SETTING: 311 municipalities in Finland. PARTICIPANTS: 3 644 944 people aged 15 to 70 residing in Finland at the end of 2001. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Hospital admission and mortality from all causes, internal causes, alcohol attributable causes, accidental injury and violence, suicide or self-harm, and mental health related causes. Appendicitis and toxic effects of metals were negative control outcomes. RESULTS: During 50.4 million person years of follow-up in 2002-17, 4 237 807 person years with hospital admissions were observed and 221 912 individuals died. Mortality in municipalities with a moderate density of heavy metal bands (<5.7 per 10 000 inhabitants) was lower than in municipalities with no heavy metal bands. Hospital admission rates were lower in municipalities with heavy metal bands compared with those with none. These associations could be explained partly by differences in the sociodemographic characteristics of residents in these municipalities. After adjustment for individual characteristics and area level cultural and economic characteristics-proportion of the population with no religious affiliation, unemployment rate, and per capita expenditure on culture and education-large cities with a high density of heavy metal bands (8.2-11.2 per 10 000) showed a mortality advantage (hazard ratio 0.92, 95% confidence interval 0.88 to 0.96). In contrast, the association for hospital admission was fully attenuated (incidence rate ratio 0.99, 95% confidence interval 0.92 to 1.06). The cause specific analysis showed similar results, with the association most pronounced for alcohol attributable mortality (hazard ratio 0.83, 95% confidence interval 0.75 to 0.93 for cities with a high density of heavy metal bands) and alcohol attributable hospital admissions (incidence rate ratio 0.84, 95% confidence interval 0.74 to 0.97 for cities with a high density of heavy metal bands) in the fully adjusted models. No association with heavy metal band density was found for the analysis using appendicitis as a negative control outcome. CONCLUSIONS: The study found no evidence for adverse health outcomes with increasing density of heavy metal bands. Cities with a high density of heavy metal bands showed slightly lower rates of mortality and of hospital admissions for alcohol related problems and self-harm. Although residual confounding remains a problem in observational studies, vibrant local heavy metal scenes-comparable to many other forms of cultural capital-might help to promote health through healthier lifestyles, better coping mechanisms, and a stronger sense of community.”,
journal = “BMJ”,
volume = 375,
pages = “e067633”,
month = dec,
year = 2021,
address = “England”,
language = “en”, category={Music, Health, Criticality, heavy metal, Urbanism} }

Author={Yahr, Emily},
Title={Merle Haggard’s too-good-to-be-true story about Johnny Cash? It really happened.},
journal={The Washington Post},
comment={Merle Haggard almost certainly did see Johnny Cash play while he was incarcerated at San Quentin. While it wasn’t the show made famous on the record, Johnny Cash’s concert itinerary had him at San Quentin during the years Merle Haggard was incarcerated there.},
category={Music, johnny cash, merle haggard, san quentin, prison}
% Now if only someone would look into whether Nichelle Nichols actually met Martin Luther King Jr.

Author={Stephenson, Will},
Title={The Well-Tempered Synthesizer},
comment={Review of Wendy Carlos: A Biography, by Amanda Sewell. Claims that electronic music predated hip-hop, rock, doo-wop, bluegrass, big-band, and jazz. Mark Twain saw a demonstration of a telharmonium in 1906 that created electric music. Mentions a paper by Milton Babbit called Who Cares If You Listen where he argues for the obscure and complex in music. Terry Riley was there at the release of Switched-On Bach. It outsold the Who’s Tommy, and Hohnny Cash at San Quentin. It was the first classical album to sell a million copies. Giorgio Moroder was listening to Wendy Carlos, not Stockhausen or Subotnik. “The very frailness of the instrument — the way the Moog can sound, to modern ears, occasionally tinny or pitiful — has the effect of enhancing the poignancy of its performace of sacred music, as if making literal, in the contrast itself, our weakness in relation to God.” Carlos said: “Every parameter that you can control, you must control.” The article ends with a painful recounting of how wendy has been treated in the press, even recently.},
category={Music, electronic music, wendy carlos, switched-on bach, moog}

Author={Rees, David},
Title={Letter of Recommendation: Sleep, ‘Dopesmoker’},
journal={The New York Times},
comment={The now-legendary review of Sleep’s Dopesmoker in the NY Times Magazine. like a Mark Rothko painting hitting you over the head with a bag of hammers.'' Sounds like an avalanche having an orgasm.’’},
category={Music, sleep, dopsmoker, stoner metal, doom metal}

title={Vestibular responses to loud dance music: A physiological basis of the “rock and roll threshold”?},
author={Todd, Neil P McAngus and Cody, Frederick W},
journal={The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America},
comment={Music at clubs and rock shows played at hearing-damaging levels causes a physiological pleasurable sense of motion in people - we are hard-wired to enjoy loud music. The scientists postulate that there is a “rock and roll threshold” above which the pleasurable sensations of self-motion are experienced.},
category={Music, sound, noice, volume}

Author={Russonello, Giovanni},
Title={50 Years On, the Art Ensemble of Chicago Is Still Transforming},
journal={The New York Times},
comment={Says the newest album of the Art Ensemble of Chicago, “We Are on the Edge” is exceptional. Gives a nice basic history of the ensemble and Roscoe Mitchell that I’ve not see put down elsewhere. Also talks briefly about the Association for the Advancement of Creative Musicians.},
category={Music, art ensemble of chicago, roscoe mitchell}

Author={Milner, Greg},
Title={They Really Don’t Make Music Like They Used To},
journal={The New York Times},
comment={The most straight-forward explanation of the loudness wars in music production that I’ve ever read. Also covers quantitative reasearch showing that music wish greater dynamic range has a longer and more robust commercial lifespan.},
category={Music, loudness wars, production}

Author={Clayton, Jace},
Title={The Link Between Whitney Houston and the Rise of Auto-Tune in North Africa},
comment={Argues that Whitney Houson’s version of I Will Always Love You from a great song to a classic. This is because of her use of “melisma” — where she improvises pitch-sliding around individual notes. Clayton points out that autotune sees the whole a capella beginning of Houston’s version as one long error because autotune tries to correct pitches to a very specific place, built into the program. But when it does this it also creates the most interesting and weird effects. Also talks about how Elvis would regularly offer to record songs if he could collect half the song-writing royalties. Most song writers would do it in a second because Elvis doing their song would bring in money. But Dolly Parton turned him down for I Will Always Love You.},
category={Music, autotune, whitney houston, dolly parton, melisma, Elvis}

@article {Trapeau2530-17,
author = {Trapeau, R{'e}gis and Sch{"o}nwiesner, Marc},
title = {The encoding of sound source elevation in the human auditory cortex},
year = {2018},
doi = {10.1523/JNEUROSCI.2530-17.2018},
publisher = {Society for Neuroscience},
abstract = {Spatial hearing is a crucial capacity of the auditory system. While the encoding of horizontal sound direction has
been extensively studied, very little is known about the representation of vertical sound direction in the auditory cortex. Using high-resolution functional magnetic resonance imaging, we measured voxel-wise sound elevation tuning curves in human auditory cortex and show that sound elevation is represented by broad tuning functions preferring lower elevations as well as secondary narrow tuning functions preferring individual elevation directions. We changed the ear shape of participants (male and female) with silicone molds for several days. This manipulation reduced or abolished the ability to discriminate sound elevation and flattened cortical tuning curves. Tuning curves recovered their original shape as participants adapted to the modified ears and regained elevation perception over time. These
findings suggest that the elevation tuning observed in low-level auditory cortex did not arise from the physical features of the stimuli, but is contingent on experience with spectral cues and covaries with the change in perception. One explanation for this observation
may be that the tuning in low-level auditory cortex underlies the subjective perception of sound elevation.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENTThis study addresses two fundamental questions about the brain representation of sensory stimuli: how the vertical spatial axis of auditory space is represented in the auditory cortex, and whether low-level sensory cortex represents physical stimulus features or subjective perceptual attributes. Using high-resolution fMRI we show that vertical sound direction is represented by broad tuning functions preferring lower elevations as well as secondary narrow tuning functions preferring individual elevation directions. In addition, we demonstrate that the shape of these tuning functions is contingent on experience with spectral cues and covaries with the change in perception, which may indicate that the tuning functions in low-level auditory cortex underlie the perceived elevation of a sound source.},
issn = {0270-6474},
URL = {},
eprint = {},
journal = {Journal of Neuroscience},
category = {Music, ears, ear shape, brain}
% These researchers used an awesome looking surround speaker setup to test their theories.
% See Times coverage: \url{}

Author={Marshall, Alex},
Title={Can You Tell a Lullaby from a Love Song? Listen and Find Out},
journal={The New York Times},
comment={A new study suggests that some types of music may have elements of universality. It seems that a wide variety of cultures may be able to identify lullabies and dance songs from a wide variety of other cultures. This is disputed by many ethnomusicologists who say ``The only universal aspect of music seems to be that most people make it.’’ Covers some of the problematic aspects of the work of Alan Lomax, who made some assumptions about the universality of music, as well as some awkwardly weird claims.},
category={Humanity, Music, universality, alan lomax}
% See also: rossmusicviolence2016

Author={Haider, Shuja},
Title={Letter of Recommendation: Detroit Techno},
journal={The New York Times},
comment={Briefly covers the largely-ignored history of Techno music in Detroit. Includes the TR-808 and TB-303 sythesizers, Juan Atkins and the origin of the name “techno”. Includes the famous quote “It’s like George Clinton and Kraftwerk are stuck in an elevator with only a sequencer to keep them company.” And talks about how techno is related to the rise and fall of the Detroit auto industry, and black workers.},
category={Music, techno, house, detroit}
% This covers a lot of what I remember about techno from taking the History of Electronic Music class at Harvard.

author = {Lee Barron},
title = {The sound of street corner society: UK grime music as ethnography},
journal = {European Journal of Cultural Studies},
volume = {16},
number = {5},
pages = {531-547},
year = {2013},
doi = {10.1177/1367549413491937},
URL = { },
eprint = { },
abstract = { This article explores the ways in which popular music can be linked to ethnography. While there is a tradition of connecting popular music with sociology, this article posits a further resonance that is not so much theoretical as methodological. The article suggests that forms of contemporary popular music parallel key facets of ethnography, not simply in terms of sociological analysis, but with regard to popular music as an ethnographic resource, as ‘data’, and as the reflexive expression of Paul Willis’ conception of the ‘ethnographic imagination’; and the article argues that contemporary British hip-hop in the form of ‘grime’ is a potent exemplar. This is due to the resolutely cultural, spatial nature of grime music: a factor that marks out grime as a distinctive musical genre and a distinctive ethnographic form, as it is an experientially rooted music about urban locations, made from within those urban locations. },
comment={Looks at how Grime music from Great Britain reflects not just a musical style, but an ethnographic culture, and an urban place.},
category={Music, grime, london, Urbanism},
% Download a pdf version here: \url{}
% I haven’t actually read, haven’t read, this article yet.

Author={Frere-Jones, Sasha},
Title={Sound Machine},
journal={The New Yorker},
comment={Sasha Frere-Jones bites into the 2012 Kraftwerk retrospective at MoMA. Covers Kraftwerk’s influential history, including being picked up by Afrika Bambaataa to create Planet Rock, and other modern pop songs. Also talks about their early history and shift from Krautrock into electronic music for everyone. ``What carried the retrospective, and kept it from being a period piece, was the sound. It was relatively quiet, as pop-music performance goes, and Hütter explained that it was like classical music for him; hearing detail was important, and there needed to be room for dynamic surges and drops. Hearing the rippling, atonal arpeggios of “Numbers” or the almost demure tootling of “Neon Lights” made it seem as if Kraftwerk’s influence on contemporary music might never end. Every fragment of language—“It’s in the air for you and me,” for instance—and every lullaby melody could be dropped, without change, into any modern pop song and sound appropriate to even the savviest listener.’’},
category={Music, The art, kraftwerk, electronic music, hip-hop, moma}
% I remember being at this show and thinking: “It makes sense that they are in this museum. They ARE museum pieces - MoMA gives them the legitimacy they always should have had for the influence they had. But they are not creating NEW music that is shifting the landscape anymore. Not that there’s anything wrong with that.”
% Also, as Frere-Jones points out, this show was the BEST sounding show I have ever been too. It was astonishingly crisp. There was SO much detail you could hear.
% It’s one of the things I love about Kraftwerk; their production quality. They are one of the few bands I like that justify having expensive stereo equipment. Not that there’s anything wrong with poor production. But high-quality production is its own art to be appreciated when it’s there.

Author={Turner, Gustavo},
Title={The Story Behind the Planet’s Most Influential Road Map of “Weird Music”},
journal={LA Weekly},
comment={A look at the enduring influence of the Nurse With Wound List, included with Chance Meeting on a Dissecting Table of a Sewing Machine and an Umbrella.},
category={Music, nww list, experimental music, nurse with wound}
% Until this article I always thought the track Strain, Crack, Break was the source of the list. Now I know that was a bonus track included in the 2001 reissue of Chance Meeting.

Author={Bernas, Frederick},
Title={Listening Clubs Tantalize Audiophiles in London},
journal={The New York Times},
comment={David Mancuso in 1970s NYC used to throw parties that put quality of audio above all else. He took out any fancy elements that a DJ might bring, like mixing, and instead focused on picking excellent tracks and then reproducing them with as high quality as possible. Some people in London are trying to do parties like that again now.},
category={Music, djs, parties, nyc, 1970s}
% Not mentioned in this article is the fact that there MUST be a racial element to this. Audiophiles are almost entirely white middle and upper class folks. DJs are often people of color and spin for parties for lower income folks.

Author={Gomez, Edward M.},
Title={Yoko Ono’s Vintage Sonic Blasts Still Sound Like the Future},
journal={The New York Times},
comment={A look at Yoko Ono’s early albums with John Lennon as they are being reissued digitally and on vinyl. Compares Yoko Ono to Kraftwerk and talks about how she influenced the B-52s on Rock Lobster, which in turn influences John Lennon.},
category={Music, rock, art, john lennon, yoko ono}

Author={Remnick, David},
Title={Leonard Cohen Makes It Darker},
journal={The New Yorker},
comment={A long-form history of Leonard Cohen leading up to his 2016 album You Want It Darker. Tells the emotional story of Marianne’s (of So Long, Marianne) death, and his comparison to Bob Dylan, among many other defining anecdotes of his musical career. Also mentions how he competes with Bruce Springsteen with his 3-4 hour long concerts.},
category={Music, leonard cohen, bob dylan, hydra, greece, zen, buddhism, death}

Author={Hansen, Beck},
Title={Cover Power},
journal={Vanity Fair},
comment = {Beck Hansen lists his favorite album covers. Includes Isaac Hayes’ Black Moses.},
category = {Music, vinyl, album covers}
% I’m pretty sure this article is actually from November 2001. Not sure why Vanity Fair has this post date on it.

Author={Ross, Alex},
Title={When Music Is Violence},
journal={The New Yorker},
comment = {Raises the claim that there is no such thing as music with universal appeal (that is a concept that arose only in the last few hundred years) and makes the argument that music is inherently powerful and just as easy to use for violence as for peace. To quote the standard platitudes, it has charms to soothe a savage breast; it is the food of love; it brings us together and sets us free. We resist evidence suggesting that music can cloud reason, stir rage, cause pain, even kill. Footnoted treatises on the dark side of music are unlikely to sell as well as the cheery pop-science books that tout music’s ability to make us smarter, happier, and more productive.'' A genre that enrages one person may have a placebo effect on another. A 2006 study by the psychologist Laura Mitchell, testing how music-therapy sessions can alleviate pain, found that a suffering person was better served by his or her “preferred music” than by a piece that was assumed to have innately calming qualities. In other words, music therapy for a heavy-metal fan should involve heavy metal, not Enya.’’ Beginning in the nineteen-fifties, programs that trained American soldiers and intelligence operatives to withstand torture had a musical component; at one point, the playlist reportedly included the industrial band Throbbing Gristle and the avant-garde vocalist Diamanda Galás.'' The soldiers told Pieslak that they used music to strip themselves of empathy. One said that he and his comrades sought out a “predator kind of music.” Another, after admitting with some embarrassment that Eminem’s “Go to Sleep” (“Die, motherfucker, die”) was a “theme song” for his unit, said, “You’ve got to become inhuman to do inhuman things.” The most unsettling choice was Slayer’s “Angel of Death,” which imagines the inner world of Josef Mengele: “Auschwitz, the meaning of pain / The way that I want you to die.” Such songs are far removed from uplifting wartime propaganda like “Over There,” the patriotic 1917 tune by George M. Cohan. The image of soldiers prepping for a mission by listening to Metallica’s “One”—“Landmine has taken my sight . . . Left me with life in hell”—suggests the degree to which they, too, felt trapped in a malevolent machine.’’ German thinkers in the idealist and Romantic tradition—Hegel, E.T.A. Hoffmann, and Schopenhauer, among others—sparked a drastic revaluation of music’s significance. It became the doorway to the infinitude of the soul, and expressed humanity’s collective longing for freedom and brotherhood. With the canonization of Beethoven, music became the vehicle of genius. Sublime as Beethoven is, the claim of universality blended all too easily with a German bid for supremacy. The musicologist Richard Taruskin, whose rigorously unsentimental view of Western music history anchors much recent work in the field, likes to quote a phrase ironically articulated by the historian Stanley Hoffman, who died last year: “There are universal values, and they happen to be mine.”''}, category = {Music, violence, torture, war, slayer, throbbing gristle, metallica, diamanda galas} } % In the paper magazine this article was called: The Sound of Hate % There's a lot of interesting ideas in this article, but the central thesis is deeply flawed. I'm sure it's possible to use SOUND as a weapon --- to cause deafness presumably. That would not be different than using lasers to blind people. % But the weapons’’ that use sounds are usually trying to be non-permanent damaging. And those seem to be not entirely effective. I’m not sure the Mosquito device to chase away teenagers isn’t any less of a scam than the devices that are supposed to chase away actual mosquitoes.
% And the sound machines that are supposed to disperse crowds, I heard recently, were complete ineffective against Black Lives Matter protesters. And presumably didn’t work very well against Occupy Wall Street either.
% And that is not MUSIC those machines just make sound. There is little to no evidence that MUSIC is in any way a more effective torture or violence device than NOISE.
% I think the more truthful conclusion is that music you like IS soothing, and what you like is not universal. But there is very little evidence that music can be used AGAINST someone.
% See also: marshall2018music

author = {CUSICK,SUZANNE G.},
title = {“You are in a place that is out of the world. . .”: Music in the Detention Camps of the “Global War on Terror”},
journal = {Journal of the Society for American Music},
volume = {2},
issue = {01},
month = {2},
month = {2},
year = {2008},
issn = {1752-1971},
pages = {1–26},
numpages = {26},
doi = {10.1017/S1752196308080012},
URL = {},
% This article cited in Alex Ross’s article about music and violence. I haven’t read it yet. It may address that question more carefully of whether MUSIC is the thing that is used for torture, or SOUND.
% Unfortunately it looks like I again have no access to this article.

Author={Rosen, Jody},
Title={Prince and the Competition},
journal={The New York Times},
comment = {Mostly about how Prince couldn’t resist battling the competition, not just Michael Jackson, but everyone. Also mentions, Musicians in the early ’80s found themselves surrounded by any number of new high-tech toys, instruments they hadn’t quite learned how to use. Prince figured them out, devising a new brand of dance music based on a heretofore unheard-of idea: that synthesizer and drum machines could carry a sweaty funk groove as forcefully as guitars and drums and brass sections had.'' Today, it’s striking how much more adventurous Prince’s records were than those of fellow ’80s titans — including his chief friendly nemesis, Michael Jackson. Some of his singles even took dead aim at those rivals. “Raspberry Beret” played like a funky, libidinous sendup of Bruce Springsteen’s Heartland road songs. (“I put her on the back of my bike/And we went riding/Down by Old Man Johnson’s farm.”) The astounding guitar work on the “Purple Rain” soundtrack seemed directed at Jackson, who had muscled up his music on hits like “Beat It.” The point was unmistakable: If Michael Jackson wanted a rip-roaring guitar solo, he had to corral Eddie Van Halen and pay him a generous day rate. Prince could peel off the solo himself, presumably in between orgies.’’},
category = {prince, Music, michael jackson, bruce springsteen}
% Refer to this article if you ever add Prince to music for emma

Author={Dryden, John},
Title={A Song for St. Cecilia’s Day, 1687},
year = {1687},
comment = {A poem about the power of music. (And the end of the world.)},
category = {poems, apocalypse, music}
% ``And Music shall untune the sky!’’

Author={Johnson, Steven},
Title={The Creative Apocalypse That Wasn’t},
journal={The New York Times},
comment = {Covers how muscians, artists, and writers are actually doing pretty well financially. In music the revenue from albums has dropped to nearly nothing, but the cost of concerts has risen dramatically. In addition the cost to produce works has dropped dramatically. Looks carefully at data.},
category = {music, art, film}

Author={Moore, Alan},
Howpublished={Audio recording. \url{}},
journal = {Chain Reaction, BBC Radio 4},
Title={Alan Moore Vs Brian Eno},
comment = {Alan Moore interviewing Brian Eno. Transcript here: \url{}},
category = {Alan Moore, Brian Eno}

Author={Keller, Julie},
Title={ABBA’s Billion-Dollar Rejection},
journal={E! Online},
comment = {ABBA turned down a billion dollars to get together for 100 shows. I heard an interview with them on the BBC a while back where they went into a lot more detail on it than this story covers.},
category = {ABBA}